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‫‪" ...‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺃﺓ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ" ﻻ ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻜﺜﻴ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻅﻴﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ‪ .‬ﻓﻬـﻲ ﻝﻴـﺴﺕ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ "ﺫﻜﻭﺭﻴﺔ" ﻓﻲ ﻤﻅﻬﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻬﺎ؛ ﻭﻻ ﺘﺭﻓﺽ ﺒﺎﻝـﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻝﻺﻨﺎﺙ‪ .‬ﺒل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻜﺱ ﺘﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻼﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻴﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﻥ ‪) ...‬ﻏﺎﻝ‪‬ﺒﺎ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﻥ( ﺯﻭﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻤﻬﺎﺕ ‪ ...‬ﻝﺩﻴﻬﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺠﻴﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻤﺘﻌﻥ ﺒﺤﺴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻅﻬﺭ ﻭﺒﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺎﺕ ﺠﻴـﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺤﺘـﺸﻤﺎﺕ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﻜﻼﻤﻬﻥ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝﻬﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﻨﻬﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ "ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺙ" ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﺠﻨـﺴﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻁـﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴـﺩﻱ‬

                                                    ‫ﻝﻠﻜﻠﻤﺔ )‪.(1974, 219‬‬

‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻭل ﺇﻥ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻜﻴﺭﻜﺒﺎﺘﺭﻴـﻙ – ﻤﺜﻠـﻪ ﻤﺜـل ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻤﺒﻴﺭﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ – ﻴﺒﺩﻭ ﺤﺫ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﻭ ‪‬ﻤﺤﺎِﻓ ﹰﻅﺎ ﻭ ‪‬ﻤﻘﻴ ‪‬ﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﻁﺎﻗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻝﻜﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺘﻨﺒﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺴﻴﺎﻗﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ – ﺃﻱ ﻜﺭﺩ ﻓﻌـل ﻝﻠﻭﺠـﻭﺩ ﻏﻴـﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺌـﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﺴﻴﺎﺴ‪‬ﻴﺎ( ﻝﻠﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺘﺒﺩﻭ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻔﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀ ﹰﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗـل ﻀـﻤﹰﻨﺎ( ﻝﻠﻜﺘﺎﺒـﺎﺕ‬

                                ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺃﺓ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻝﻘﺩ ﺤﺎﻭﻝﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺠﻌل ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝـﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺭﺌ‪‬ﻴـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻝﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻜﺄﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﻴ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ﻜﻘﻭﺓ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﻌﻤل ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻁﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﺒﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻫﻀﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀ ﹰﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻨﺠﺎﺤﺎﺘﻬـﺎ‬

                            ‫ﻭﺇﺨﻔﺎﻗﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل‪:‬‬

‫;‪Freeman 1975; Costain 1980, 1982; Gelb and Palley 1982; Gelb 1989; Boles 1979‬‬

‫‪Mansbridge 1986; Mathews and De Hart 1990; Klatch 1987.‬‬

‫ﻭﻤﺜل ﻜﻴﺭﻜﺒﺎﺘﺭﻴﻙ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻤﻥ ﺩﺭﺴﻥ ﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻨﺨﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻝﻼﺘﻲ ﺩﺭﺴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺭﻱ ‪ -‬ﺒﺈﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺒﻭﺼﻔﻬﻥ ﻻﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻨﺎﻗﺼﺎﺕ ﺴﻴﺎﺴ‪‬ﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﺼﻠﺕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺩﻻﺌل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺠﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻬـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝـﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝـﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝـﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل‪Jennings and Farah 1980; Rapoport :‬‬
‫‪ ،(1982, 1985‬ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺃﻏﻠﺏ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺩﻝﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺨـﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺠﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﺠﻬﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻬﻡ ﺍﻝـﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﻨﺴﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﺭﺠﻊ‪ ،‬ﺠﺯﺌ‪‬ﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺩﺭ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺘﺤﻴﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺃﺜﺭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺄﻭﻴل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻜﺭﺓ ﺒﻤـﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻝـﻰ‬
‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻝﻠﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺒﻭﺼﻔﻬﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﹰﻓﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺠﺎل‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻊ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﻨﺴﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺏ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺠﺭﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﻨﻴـﺎﺕ ﻴﻌﻜـﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺸﻬﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻅل ﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺠﺎل ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬

                                                         ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤل‪.‬‬
‫ﻝﻘﺩ ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺠﺭﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻴﻤﺎﺜﻠﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺠـﺎل‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻤﺜل ﺸﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻤﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺭﺴﺎﺌل ﺇﻝـﻰ ﺍﻝﻤـﺴﺅﻭﻝﻴﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺤﻀﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺸـﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺤـﺯﺍﺏ ) ‪Hansen,‬‬

‫‪Franz, and Netemeyer-Mays 1976; Welch 1977; Baxter and Lansing 1980; Beckwith‬‬

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