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‫ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ]ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ[ ﺃﻥ ‘ﺘﻤﺘﻠﻙ’ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻷﻨﻪ ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺩﻭ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺨﻁﻭﻁ‬
                                                                       ‫ﺫﻜﻭﺭﻴﺔ" )‪.(1988, 202‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺘﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺤﺩﺩﺕ ﻻﻨﺩﺱ ﻤﻭﻗﻌﻪ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻋـﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻤـﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻝﺠﻨـﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻤﻭﻀﻭ ‪‬ﻋﺎ ﻝﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝ ‪‬ﻤﻨﻅﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝ ‪‬ﻤﻬﺘﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﻌﺎﺭﻀﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻜﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻲ ﻝﻠﺩﻴﻤﻘﺭﺍﻁﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺘﺒﻌﺕ ﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻝﻴﻨﺩﻭﻥ ﺸـﺎﻨﻠﻲ‬
‫)‪ (Mary Lyndon Shanley, 1989‬ﺨ ﹰﻁﺎ ﺒﺤﺜﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻤﻤﺎﺜ ﹰﻼ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺎﺸﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﻜﺘﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺤﻭل ﻋﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺤـﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺭﺍﻉ ﻭﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺃﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﻥ ﻝﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺴﻊ ﻋﺸﺭ‬
‫ﻝﻜﻲ ﻴﻭﻓﻴﻥ ﺒﻭﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺘﻌﺘﺭﻑ ﺸﺎﻨﻠﻲ ﺒﻔـﺸل ﺃﻏﻠـﺏ ﺍﻝﻨـﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﻴﻜﺘﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺠﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺠﻨﺴﻲ ﻝﻠﻌﻤل ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﺴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﻝﻔﺘﺕ ﺍﻨﺘﺒﺎﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻴ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼﻝﻬﻥ ﻝﻠﻤﻌﺘﻘﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻴﺩﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻝﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻐﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻭﺃﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﻻﻨﺩﺱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺤﺕ ﺸﺎﻨﻠﻲ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬

                                        ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻝﻌﺏ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺘﻤﺜل ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻼﺘﻲ ﺃﺩﺭﺠﻥ ﺍﻝﻨـﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ ﺩﺍﺨـل‬
‫ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺘﻬﻥ ﺤﻭل ﺃﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺇﻝﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻀﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺘﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻜﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻌﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻜﻔﺌﺔ ﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﻤﻭﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺠﺎﺩل ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺘﺭ ‪‬ﻴﻌﺩ ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﺯﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺒﺈﻤﻜﺎﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻀﻔﺎﺀ ﻁﺎﺒﻊ ﺭﺍﺩﻴﻜﺎﻝﻲ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻻﺘﺠـﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻝﻠﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺌﻴﺔ )‪ . (Eisenstein 1981; Shanley 1989‬ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻻﺤﻅﺕ ﺯﻴﻼ ﺃﻴﺯﻨـﺸﺘﻴﻥ ‪(Zilla‬‬

                                                                         ‫)‪ Eisenstein‬ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺘﻀﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﺯﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠـﺭﺩ ﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘـﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﻭﺭﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺭﺠﻭﺍﺯﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺃﻨﻜﺭﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻀﻤﻨﺕ ﺫﻝـﻙ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻝﻨﺯﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﻨﺯﻋﺔ ﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺒل‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺒﺎﻷﺤﺭﻯ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﺭﺍﹰﻓﺎ ‪ ...‬ﺒﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻜﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪ ...‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻜﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻴﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ ﺘﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﺴـﺎﺱ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻤﻀﻴﻨﺎ ﺒﻤﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺭﺠﺎل ﺇﻝﻰ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬـﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬

      ‫ﻨﺠﺩﻫﺎ ﺘﺯﻴﺢ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﻁﺭﻴﺭﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻲ )‪.(1981, 6‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺼﺩﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺒﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ "ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻝﺠﻨـﺴﻴﺔ" ) ‪Feminism‬‬
‫‪ ،(and Sexual Equality, 1984‬ﺨﹸﻠﺼﺕ ﺃﻴﺯﻨﺸﺘﻴﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺭﺍﺩﻴﻜﺎﻝﻴـﺔ ﺒـﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﻋﻤـل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺎﺕ ﻜﺭﺩ ﻓﻌل ﻝﻌﺩﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ – ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﻌﻰ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﻤﻨـﺫ‬
‫‪ ،١٩٨٠‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺤﺫﻑ ﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻁﺭﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻝﻠﺤﺭﻜـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺌﻴﺔ )ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺼﻼﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﻕ ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺽ( – ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻨﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺘﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻜﻔﺌﺔ ﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻜﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺈﻴﺠﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﹸﺘﺠﺒـﺭ ﺍﻝﻨـﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬

                                            ‫ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ ﺒﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺯﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺠﺎﺩل ﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ ﺘﻜﻤـﻥ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﺸـﺩﺘﻬﺎ "ﺍﻝﺠﻬـﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺭﻭﻗﺭﺍﻁﻲ ﻝﻠﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﻹﺩﻤﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺩﺍﺨل ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺨـﻼل ﺒـﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬

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