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‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻁﺭﺡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﹸﺘﻌﺘﺒـﺭ‬
‫ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻻﺕ – ﻗﺩ ﻻ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻁﻼﻕ ) ‪1989,‬‬

                                                                      ‫‪.(22‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺨﹸﻠﺼﺕ ﻨﻠﺴﻭﻥ – ﺍﺭﺘﻜﺎ ‪‬ﺯﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻜﺘﺏ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺠﻠﺩﻴﻥ ﺤﺩﻴﺜﻴﻥ ﻝﻠﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﺤﻭل ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ – ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻝﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺩﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﹸﺘﻌﺩ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺘﻜﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻘﺩﺭ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻨﺤـﻭ ﺍﻝﻨـﺴﺎﺀ‬

                                           ‫ﻭﺨﺒﺭﺍﺘﻬﻥ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺠﺎﺩﻝﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪ ...‬ﺃﻥ ﻨﻀﻡ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻝﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻤﻤـﺎ ﻫـﻭ‬
‫ﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ‪‬ﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﹸﻨﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺃﻴ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺘﻘﻠﻴـﺩ‪‬ﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﻴﺭ ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺒﺎ ﻁﻭﻴ ﹰﻼ ﻝﺨﻠﻕ ﺨﻁﺎﺏ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﺃﻜﺜـﺭ ﺸـﻤﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﻬﻨـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻷﺴﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻓﺎﻩ – ﻫﺫﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺫﻜﺭﻨﺎ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻓﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺸـﻘﻴﻥ‪ :‬ﺘﺅﻜـﺩ ﺍﺭﺘﻜـﺎﺯ ﺠﻤﻴـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻬﺘﻡ ﺃﻴ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ﺒﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬

                ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺃﻨﻔﻘﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﻁﺎﻗﺎﺘﻬﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪.(1989, 21‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﻤﺒﻴﺭﻴﻘﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ ﺘﻁﺭﺡ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﺸﻜﻙ ﺒﺎﺤﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻷﺩﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻤﺒﻴﺭﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﺘـﺄﺜﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‪ ،‬ﺒﻔﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻼﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺼل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﻴﺎل‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺴﻔﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻗﻠﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻨﻌﺭﻓﻪ ﻨﺴﺒ‪‬ﻴﺎ ‪ -‬ﻗﺒل ﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻨـﺴﻭﻴﺔ ‪-‬‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﻤﺴﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ؛ ﻓﻨﺎﺩ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺠﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﻝ‪‬ﺒـﺎ ﻤـﺎ‬

                                                  ‫ﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻋﺩﺴﺔ ﻤﺘﺤﻴﺯﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﻤﺒﻴﺭﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺩﻝﻴ ﹰﻼ ﺃﻴ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺒـﺴﺘﻭﻤﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻌﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﻘﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ )ﻭﺭﺒﻤﺎ ﺘﻔﻌل ﺫﻝﻙ ﺩﺍﺌ ‪‬ﻤﺎ( ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﺠﺏ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻴـﺔ ﺤـﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻭﺠﻪ ﺨﺎﺹ ﺤﻭل ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺸﻌﺭ ﻋﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻴـﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺒﻘﻠﻕ ﺸﺩﻴﺩ ﺘﺠﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺯﻋﻡ ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﻭﺨﻠﻭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺸﻤﻭﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﺎﺌﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺒﺩﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻠﻘﻬﻥ‬
‫ﻴﺭﺠﻊ‪ ،‬ﺠﺯﺌ‪‬ﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺘﺤﻴﺯﺍﺕ ﻗﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻤﺎ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺤـﻭل ﻤـﺴﻠﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﺒﻊ ﻗﻠﻘﻬﻥ ﺠﺯﺌ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﺃﻴ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻜﻬﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﺎﺌﻕ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ – ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﺍﻜﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨـﻼل ﻫـﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ – ﺘﺭﺘﻜﺯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺘﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬

                                                                                ‫ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴ ‪‬ﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﺘﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﻤﺒﻴﺭﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺤﻭل ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻨﺎ ﻝﻠﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻭﺃﺴﺎﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻔـﺼل ﺒـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺩ ﹰﻻ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻅﺎﻫﺭﻱ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺼل‪ ،‬ﺤﺎﻭﻝﺕ ﺍﻝﻨـﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬

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