Page 26 - Political science
P. 26

‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻝﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﻴﻥ ﺃﺤﻴﺎﹰﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ "ﺍﻝﺘﻼﻋﺏ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﻭﺍﺸـﻲ" ﻋﺒـﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﺒـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻤﺒﻜﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻜﺭ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺴﻴﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺹ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤـﺎ ﻴﻘـﻭﺩ‬

                                                        ‫ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺴﻭﺀ ﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ "ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻲﺀ" ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﺘﺴﻡ ﺒﻪ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﺴـﻠﻭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻴﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻭﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ "ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ" ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﻬﺕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻌﻠـﻭﻡ ﺍﻝـﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﹸﺘﻌﺩ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻌﺏ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﺍﺘﻬﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺤﻴﺯ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺩ‬
‫ﻁﺭﺤﺕ ﺠﻴﻥ ﺇﻝﺸﺘﻴﻥ )‪ ،(Jean Bethke Elshtain‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻗﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺘﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ‬

                                    ‫ﺍﻹﺒﺴﺘﻤﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻔﺼل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﺎﺌﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺸﺭﺡ ﻗﺎﺌﻠﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺘﻌﻘﻴ ‪‬ﺩﺍ ﻭﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺍﺘﻬﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺤﻴﺯ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻷﻤﺭ ﻴﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻜل‬
‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺘﺩﻋﻡ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺒﻌﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠل ﺇﻁﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ‪ ،‬ﻀﻤﹰﻨﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻝﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﺼﺭﺍﺤﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺒﺎﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﻁـﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺒل ﺒﺩﺀ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‪ ،‬ﻴﺠـﺭﻱ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﺒﻌـﺽ‬
‫ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﺅﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻤﻨﻬـﺎ ) ‪1979a,‬‬

                                                                 ‫‪.(242‬‬

‫ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﻝﺸﺘﻴﻥ )ﻭﻫﻲ ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻘﺎﺴﻤﻬﺎ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻼﺘﻲ ﻴﺩﺭﺴﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ( ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻨﺕ ﺇﻁﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﻴـﺭ ﻤﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﺘﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺒﻁ ﺒﻬﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺨـﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻝـﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺩ‬

                                                                       ‫ﻻﺤﻅﺕ ﺇﻝﺸﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻝﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻭﺼـﻑ‪ ،‬ﺘﻘﻠﻴـﺩ‪‬ﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺒﺄﻨـﻪ‬
‫ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻤﻴل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺩ ﻝـﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻋﺩﻴـﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻁﺭﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻝﻘﺩ ُﺃﺤﻴﻠﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺨﺎﺭﺝ‬

  ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﹸﻨﺒﺫﺕ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ "ﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ" ﺨﺎﺼﺔ )‪.(1979a, 243‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺃﻴ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ﺒﺎﺭﺒﺎﺭﺍ ﻨﻠﺴﻭﻥ )‪ – (Barbara Nelson‬ﻤﺜﻠﻬـﺎ ﻤﺜـل ﺇﻝـﺸﺘﻴﻥ ‪ -‬ﺇﻝـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺒﺴﺘﻭﻤﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺇﻗﺭﺍﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺒﺄﻥ ﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺭﻏﺒﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺴﻘﺔ ﻝﻸﺤﺩﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻜﺄﺤﺩ‬
‫ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺠﺎﺩل ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻗﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻴﻁﺭﺤﻥ ﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺤﻭل "ﻋﺎﻝﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﻨﺯﺍﻫﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﻗﺏ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻪ" – ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻤﻭﺭ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘـﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺒﺒـﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﺒـﺎﻹﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﻭﺠـﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻘـﻴﻡ‬

     ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺤﻴﺯﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ ﺇﺯﺍﻝﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻹﻤﺒﻴﺭﻴﻘﻴﺔ )‪ .(1989, 22‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﹸﺘﻌﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺜﻭﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻬﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﺩ ﺇﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻴﺩﺓ ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝـﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻜﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨـﺴﺎﺀ ﺩﺍﺨـل‬

                                                      ‫‪٢٤‬‬
   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31