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‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺭﺌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺘﻭﻅﻴﻑ ﻓﺭﻭﺽ ﻨﻤﻁﻴﺔ ﺤﻭل "ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ" ﺍﻝﻼﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻨـﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺴـﻠﻭﻜﻬﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﻋﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻤـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝـﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ )ﻤﺜـل‪Bourque and :‬‬

‫‪Grossholtz 1974; Shanley and Schuck 1974; Jaquette 1974; Iglitzin 1974; Goot and Reid‬‬

‫‪ ،(1975; Boals 1975; Okin 1979; Elshtain 1979a‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻤﺅﺨ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺘﻌﻤﻴﻕ ﻓﻬﻤﻨﺎ ﻝﻠﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﺨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻜﻜل‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺠﺎﻻﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻌﺎﻝﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺄﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﻨﻤﻁﻲ )ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜـﺎل‪Randall :‬‬

‫‪1991; Ackelsberg and Diamond 1987; Nelson 1989; Sapiro 1989; Grant 1991; Halliday‬‬

                                                                                      ‫‪.(1991‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﻘﺩﺭ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺠﻬـﺕ ﻋﺩﻴـﺩ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﻨـﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻨﺘﺒﺎﻫﻬﻥ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﻝﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﻐﻴﺔ ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻨـﺴﺎﺀ ﻏﻴـﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺌﻲ ﻜﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﺍﻝﺠﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ) ‪ (sexist‬ﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻼﺘﻲ ﺍﻨﻀﻤﻤﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻴـﺩﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻝﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻜﺭﺓ ﹸﺘﻌﻨﻰ ﺒﺘﺤﻁﻴﻡ ﺤﺎﺠﺯ ﺍﻝﺼﻤﺕ ﺍﻝـﺫﻱ ﻴﺤـﻴﻁ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺘﺘﺼﻑ ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺘﺯﺍل‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺩﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﺤﻭل ﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺤﺘـﻰ ﻋﻨـﺩﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺏ ﺍﻝ ‪‬ﻤﻨﻅﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺴﺘﺒﻌﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺠﺩﻥ ﺃﻴ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﺠﺎﻫل ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻝ ‪‬ﻤﻨﻅﺭﻴﻥ ﺒﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓـﻲ ﻨـﺼﻭﺼﻬﻡ‬
‫) ‪ .(Okin 1979; Elshtain 1981; Saxonhouse 1985; Eisenstein 1981; Shanley 1982‬ﺒل ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻜﺱ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﻭﻥ ﻴﺸﻌﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﻘﻠﻕ ﻋﻤﻴﻕ ﺤﻭل ﻤﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭﻭﻩ ﻏﺎﻝ‪‬ﺒﺎ ﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨـﺴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻀﻁﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺸﺅﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻝﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺒﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﻏﺎﺌﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒـل‬
‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﻥ ﺒﺎﻷﺤﺭﻯ ﻝﻠﻁﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺒﺎﺤﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝـﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ) ‪Jones and‬‬

                                                                          ‫‪.(Jonasdottir 1988‬‬
‫ﺘﻭﻝﺕ ﺍﻝ ‪‬ﻤﻨﻅﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻋـﺩﺍﺩ ﻨﻘﻁـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻝﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻤﺭﺌ‪‬ﻴﺎ – ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ ﺯﻤﻼﺌﻬﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻌﻠـﻪ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺭﺌﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻝﻴﺱ ﺒﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝ ‪‬ﻤﻨﻅﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﻴﻥ ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻏﺎﺌﺒﺎﺕ ﻜﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺴﺘﻬﺩﻓﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠـﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪،‬‬
‫ﻜﻴﻑ ﺒﺭﺭﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﻝﻴﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﻤل‪ .‬ﺜﺎﻨ‪‬ﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻜﻴﻑ ﻗﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﹰﻔﺎ ﻤﻬ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﺔ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻲ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺼﻭ ﹰﻻ ﺇﻝـﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻤﻘﺭﺍﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻨﻅ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻝﻡ ‪‬ﻴﻤﺜﻠﻥ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﺩﺒﻴـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺒﺈﻋـﺩﺍﺩ ﺘﺴﻠـﺴل ﺯﻤﻨـﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻲ ﻝﻤﺎ ﻁﺭﺤﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﻭﻥ ﺤـﻭل ﺍﻝﻨـﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﻀـﻴﺢ ﻜﻴﻔﻴـﺔ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻁﺭﻭﺤﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻝﺘﺒﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ "ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﺍﻝﺒﻁﺭﻴﺭﻜﻴﺔ" ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ‬
‫ﻁﺭﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﻓﻼﻁﻭﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻫﻴﺠل‪ ،‬ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻬﻡ ﻗﺩﻡ ﺼـﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻤﺭﺃﺓ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﺇﻨﺴﺎﹰﻨﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻜﺎﻤل‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻘﻼﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻜﺎﻤل‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻜﺎﺌﹰﻨﺎ ﺴﻴﺎﺴ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻜﺎﻤل ) ;‪Figes 1970‬‬
‫‪.(Mahowald 1978; Brennan and Pateman 1979; Clarke and Lange 1979; Pateman 1980a‬‬
‫ﻭﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺠﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺘﻬﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻬﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭﻫﻥ ﺇﻝـﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﺠﺯﻫﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻼﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻜل ﺫﻝﻙ ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﻭﻀﻌﻬﻥ ﺍﻝ ‪‬ﻤﻨﻅﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﻭﻥ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝﺏ ﻨﻤﻁﻲ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﻥ ﻗﺎﺼﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻤﺘﻼﻙ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﹸﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤـﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻝﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ "ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺒﻭﺼﻔﻬﻥ ﻨﺴﺎﺀ"‪ ،‬ﺒﺈﻴﺠﺎﺯ‪" ،‬ﻤﺴﺘﺒﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠـﺎﻻﺕ‬

                               ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ" ) ‪.(Clarke and Lange 1979, viii‬‬

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