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‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻹﺒﺴﺘﻤﻭﻝﻭﺠﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻨﺒﻨـﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺘﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ‪ -‬ﺃﺤﻴﺎﹰﻨﺎ ﻀـﻤﻨ‪‬ﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎ ﺼﺭﺍﺤﺔ ‪ -‬ﺤﻭل ﻤﺎ ﻨﺩﺭﺴﻪ ﻜﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ‪/‬ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

                                                                                  ‫ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل‬
‫ﻴﺩﺭﺱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻁﺭﺤﻬﺎ ﺒﺤﻭﺙ "ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ" ﺤﻭل ﻤـﺎ ﻨﺩﺭﺴـﻪ‬
‫ﻜﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ‪/‬ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻤﺎﻴﺯﺓ‬
‫ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﺘﻀﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻝﻠﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺍﺘﺒﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻤﺒﻴﺭﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻻﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﺒﻭﺼﻔﻬﻥ ﻓـﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﺴﻴﺎﺴـﻴﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺭﺌﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻀﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺤﺎﻭﻝﺕ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﻥ ﻤﺭﺌ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﻜﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﻗﺒﻭﻝﻬﻥ ﺃﻁﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻀﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺤﻭل ﺍ ُﻷﻁﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻔـﺭﻭﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻁﺭﺡ ﺃﻥ ُﺃﻁﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻼﺀﻡ ﻝﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻜﻔـﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﺴﻴﺎﺴـﻴﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻀ ﹰﻼ ﻋﻥ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍ ُﻷﻁﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﺽ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ ﺘﻤﺜـل‬

                                                    ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺤﻥ ﻝﻥ ﻨﺠﺎﺩل ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﻭﻨﻭﻝﻭﺠﻲ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺃﻱ ﻓﺌﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺃﻴﺔ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻜﺭﺓ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻴﻘﻊ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻔﺌﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﺘﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﻔﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ ﺃﺤﺩﺙ ﻋﻤ ‪‬ﺭﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺘﺒﺩﻭ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﻤﺜل‪ ،‬ﻗﺩﻤﺕ ﺒﺤـﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻔﺌـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺙ ﺇﺴﻬﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺠﻌﻠﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ )‪ (Gender‬ﻭﻓﺭﻭﻀـﻪ‬
‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭ ‪‬ﻋﺎ ﻴﺘﺨﻠل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺌـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺜﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝـﺜﻼﺙ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﺘﻤﺎﻴﺯﺓ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠ‪‬ﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺘﺤﻘﻴﹰﻘﺎ ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎل‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﻌﺘﺭﻑ ﺒﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻥ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻤﻴل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﻓﻕ ﻨﺤﻭ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺤﻴﺎﹰﻨﺎ ﻴﺘﻘﺎﻁﻊ ﺒﺤﺙ ﻤﻨﻔﺭﺩ ﻤﻊ ﺒﺤـﻭﺙ‬

                                                          ‫ﻓﺌﺘﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺙ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺤﻥ ﻻ ﻨﺴﺘﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﺸﺎﻤل ﻝﻸﺩﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺤﻭل "ﺍﻝﻤـﺭﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﻝـﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ"‪،‬‬
‫ﺭﻏﻡ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻀﺨﻤﺔ ﻭﺘﺨﺭﺝ ‪ -‬ﻝﺤﺴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻅ ‪-‬‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎل‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺒل‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﺭﻜﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ‪ -‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺙ ‪-‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ؛ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺘﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺘﻘﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﻫﺫﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻝﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻀﻡ ﻗـﺩ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﺃﻜﺒـﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻊ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﺄﻤل ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻜـ ﹰﻼ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺇﻤﺒﻴﺭﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻴﻁـﺭﺡ ﺘـﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺠﺩﻴـﺔ ‪-‬‬

                           ‫ﻭﻏﺎﻝ‪‬ﺒﺎ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ‪ -‬ﺤﻭل ﻤﺎ ﻨﺩﺭﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

                                                      ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺌﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻼﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺘﻤﺘﺩ ﺃﺼـﻭل ﺍﻝﺒﺤـﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻨﻘﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺍﺘﺒﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﻤﺒﻴﺭﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ ﻻﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺌﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻤـﺎ ﺘﺠﻌـل‬

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