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‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬

                                     ‫ﺴﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺝ‪ .‬ﻜﺎﺭﻭل‬
                                         ‫ﻝﻴﻨﺩﺍ ﻡ‪ .‬ﺝ‪ .‬ﺯﻴﺭﻴﻠﻠﻲ‬

‫ﻝﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ ﺤﺎﻓ ‪‬ﺯﺍ ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻁـﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻤﻊ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺒـل ﻨـﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺘﺼﻑ ﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﻭﻥ‪/‬ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺩ ‪‬ﺩﺍ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰﻼ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ )ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅ ﻴﺘﻤﺜـل ﻓـﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒـﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ Duverger‬ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،(١٩٥٥‬ﻭ ﻝﻡ ﺘﻜﺘﻤل ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻔﺘﺭﺓ ‪ ١٩٦٦-١٩٠١‬ﺴﻭﻯ ‪ ١١‬ﺃﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﻓﻘـﻁ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻁﺭﻭﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺭﻜﺯﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ )‪ .(Shanley and Schuck 1974‬ﺇﻥ "ﺍﻝﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻠـﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺄﺴﺴﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،١٩٧١‬ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﻤﻨﺫ ‪ ١٩٧٢‬ﻓﻲ ﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﺤﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻝ ‪‬ﻤﻘ ‪‬ﺩﻤﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺭﺍﺒﻁﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺨـﻼل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻨﺘﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻨﺸﺭﺕ ﺃﻭل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻕ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ )ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺴـﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜـﺎل‪Amundsen 1971; Kirkpatrick :‬‬

                                                      ‫‪.(1974; Jaquette 1974; Freeman 1975‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻨﻁﻼﹰﻗﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺍﻀﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻋﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ ﺒﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﺘﺴﺎﺭﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻊ ﺤﻠﻭل ﺍﻝﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺘﻌﺎﻅﻤـﺕ ﺃﻋـﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‪/‬ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻭﻀـﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﹸﻗﺩﻤﺕ ‪ ٦٠‬ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒـﺎﻝﻨﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺴﻨﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻋﻘﺩﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻁﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .١٩٩٢‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،١٩٩١‬ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ‪ – Women & Politics‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻜﺭﺴﺔ ﻝﻠﻜﺘﺎﺒـﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻤﺒﻴﺭﻴﻘﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ – ﺒﻨﺸﺭ ‪ ٢٤‬ﻤﻘﺎ ﹰﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪ ٢١‬ﻋﺭ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ﻝﻜﺘﺏ ﺘﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻨﻤﻭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﻜـﺯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻝﻨـﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﻨـﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺯ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﻷﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﻤﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻤـﻭ‬
‫)ﻭﺇﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﺴﺭﻉ( ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﻭﻉ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺒﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )‪.(DuBois et al. 1985‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﺨﻀﻌﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬

                    ‫ﺍﻝﺴﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺸﻬﺩﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺃﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﻤﺄﺴﺴﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﻤﻴـﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻠـﻭﻡ ﺍﻝـﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺨـﻼل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻥ‪ :‬ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ‪ Women & Politics‬ﻋﺎﻡ‬
‫‪ ،١٩٨١‬ﻭﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﺴﻡ ﺤﻭل ﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻁﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ .١٩٨٦‬ﻭﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻗﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ‪ Rutgers‬ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٨٦‬ﺃﻭل‬
‫ﻗﺴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ "ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ" ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺨﺼﺹ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨـﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭﺍﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻨﺠﺩ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺏ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻯ ﺘﻀﻡ ﺃﺴـﺘﺎ ﹰﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺤ ‪‬ﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﺒﺎﻝﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻷﻗـﺴﺎﻡ‬

          ‫ﺍﻵﻥ ﻤﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺩﺍ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ "ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ" ﻜﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﻲ ﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺌﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﻴﺴﻔﺭ ﻋـﻥ ﺁﺜـﺎﺭ ﻤﻬﻤـﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻨـﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﺠﻤﻴـﻊ‬
‫ﺒﺎﺤﺜﻲ‪/‬ﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝـﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻁـﺭﺡ‬

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