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‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ*‬

                                     ‫ﺴﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺝ‪ .‬ﻜﺎﺭﻭل‬
                                    ‫ﻝﻴﻨﺩﺍ ﻡ‪ .‬ﺝ‪ .‬ﺯﻴﺭﻴﻠﻠﻲ‬

                                                                              ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺭﺭﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ﻝﻘﺩ ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺕ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺼل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻷﻨﻪ ﹸﻨﺸﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٩٣‬ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘـﺎﺏ ﻤﻬـﻡ ﻋـﻥ‬
‫"ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻲ ﻝﺘﺨﺼﺹ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ" )‪،(Political Science: the State of the Discipline‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺸﺘﺭﻜﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺘﻪ ﺴﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻜﺎﺭﻭل ﻭﻝﻴﻨﺩﺍ ﺯﻴﺭﻴﻠﻠﻲ ‪ -‬ﻭﺘﺩﺭﺱ ﻜـﺎﺭﻭل ﺍﻝـﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﺱ ﺯﻴﺭﻴﻠﻠﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻝﻔﺼل ﺒﺎﻹﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻨﺠـﺎﺡ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜـﺔ ﺍﻝﻨـﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺴﺅﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻋﻥ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻝﺠﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺭﺃﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ – ﻭﺍﻝﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻗﺴﻡ‬
‫ﺼﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻨﺘﻅﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻁﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،١٩٧١‬ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺒﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﹸﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺴﻨﻭ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﺅﺘﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﻤﺭﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺍﺼل ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺤﺙ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻜﺄﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬

                                                                 ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻝﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻁﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺴﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﻝﻔﺘﺎﻥ ﺒﺘﻭﻀـﻴﺢ ﻤـﺩﻯ‬
‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﻱ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﻁﺭﺡ ﺇﺸﻜﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﻁﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ "ﺍﻝﻼﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ" ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﻤﺭﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴـﺭ ﺤـﻭل ﻫـﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺩ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﻝﻠﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻥ ﻭﺒـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ "ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ" )‪ .(gender difference‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺴﻬﻡ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﻨﻘﺎﺵ ﺸﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺤﻭل "ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻑ" ﻜﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺸﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻝﻌﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﻴـﻑ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻝـﻰ ﺘـﺸﻜﻴل ﻤﻌـﺎﻴﻴﺭﻫﻥ‬

                                                        ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﻴﺯﺓ ﻝﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫‪* Susan Carroll and Linda Zerilli, "Feminist Challenges to Political Science", in Political‬‬
‫‪Science: the State of the Discipline II, ed. Ada W. Finifter (Washington DC: American‬‬
‫‪Political Science Association, 1993), pp. 55-77.‬‬

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