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‫ﻝﻘﺩ ﻗﻤﺕ ﺒﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﻴﻥ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﻴﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭل‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل‬
‫ﻨﻅﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻘﺎﺸﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻴﺎﺩﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻜ ﹰﻼ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻜﺎﺭﻭل ﻭﻝﻴﻨﺩﺍ ﺯﻴﺭﻴﻠﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺠﻴﻥ ﻓﻼﻜﺱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻫﻭﻜﺴﻭﻭﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺠﻭﻝﻴﺎ ﺠﻭﺭﺩﺍﻥ‪-‬ﺯﺍﻜﺭﻱ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺭﺅﻯ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺤﻭل ﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀ ﹰﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻭﻀﺢ ﻤﻘﺎﻻﺘﻬﻥ ﺃﻴ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﺫﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺴﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻝﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻀﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻘﺎﻁﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻨﺼﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬

                                       ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺒﻭﺠﻪ ﺨﺎﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻝﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺴﻁ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻘﺎﺸﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻴﺔ ﻝﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﻭﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻨﻅ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﻷﻨﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﺩﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ‪ ،‬ﺸﻜﻠﺕ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺘﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺴﻁ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﻜﺯﺕ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﻨﻪ ﺃﻴ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬
‫ﺸﻬﺩﺕ ﺘﻁﻭﺭﻩ ﻭﺸﺎﺭﻜﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻝﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﻤﺅﻝﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺅﻝﻔﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻀﻡ ﺍﻝﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻘﺎﻻﺘﻬﻡ‬
‫)ﺯﻫﺭﺓ ﺃﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻝﻭﺭﻱ ﺒﺭﺍﻨﺩ‪ ،‬ﻤﻴﺭﻓﺕ ﺤﺎﺘﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎﻨﻲ ﺠﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻲ ﻻﻨﺠﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺠﻭﺯﻴﻑ ﻤﺴﻌﺩ‪ ،‬ﺠﻨﻴﻔﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻝﻤﺴﺘﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺴﻴﻨﺠﺭﻤﺎﻥ( ﻫﻡ ﺠﻤﻴ ‪‬ﻌﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺠﻨﻴﻔﺭ ﺃﻭﻝﻤﺴﺘﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻓﺭﻉ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﺸﻘﻴﻕ‪ .‬ﺇﻨﻬﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻓﻀل ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻕ ﺃﻭﺴﻁﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻘﺩﻤﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺇﺴﻬﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺇﻨﻬﻡ ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻌﻭﻥ ﺒﺭﺅﻯ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻝﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻴﻤﻘﺭﺍﻁﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻭﻝﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺤﺭﺭ ﺍﻝﻭﻁﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻁﺭﺤﻭﻥ ﺃﻴ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻐﻁﻲ ﺩﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ‪ -‬ﺒﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺸﻤﺎل ﺃﻓﺭﻴﻘﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺼﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻀﻴﻑ ﻤﻘﺎل ﺃﻤﺎﻨﻲ ﺠﻤﺎل ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ‬

                                                               ‫ﺍﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻘﺴﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺘﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻴﺭﻜﺯ ﻤﻘﺎل‬
‫ﺠﻭﺯﻴﻑ ﻤﺴﻌﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺃﺘﻤﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺭﻭﻕ ﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺘﺤﺜﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺨﺭﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺜﻲ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺨﻴ ‪‬ﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﺘﺠﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻝﻭﺭﻱ ﺒﺭﺍﻨﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ "ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ" ) ‪Women, the State and‬‬
‫‪ (Political Liberalization‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻨﺎﻗﺵ ﺍﻵﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻹﺩﺨﺎل ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﺒﺭ‬

                                                 ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ ﺍﻝﻼﺘﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﻋﻭﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺃﻀﻴﻑ ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅﺔ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺘﻭﺍﺭﻴﺦ ﻨﺸﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻝﻘﺩ ﻗﻤﺕ ﺒﺠﻬﺩ ﻭﺍﻉ ﻝﺘﻀﻤﻴﻥ ﺃﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺴﻁ‪،‬‬
‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻤﻜﻥ ﻝﻲ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ .‬ﻭﻝﻜﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﺄ ﻝﻠﻘﺎﺭﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻗﺩ ﻋﻔﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ ﻭﻝﻡ ﺘﻌﺩ ﻤﻔﻴﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻕ ﻴﻤﺜل ﻤﻘﺎﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻐﻠﻭﻁﺔ ﻝﻸﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻴﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻁﻴﺎﺕ ﻝﻸﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻝﺼﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺌﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ‬

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