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‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺭﺭﺓ‬

        ‫ﺁﺨﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝ ‪‬ﻤﺴﺘﻜﺸﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬

                                      ‫ﺒﻘﻠﻡ‪ :‬ﻤﻴﺭﻓﺕ ﺤﺎﺘﻡ‬

‫ﺃﻭﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ‪‬ﻴﻘ ِﺩﻡ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻗﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺏ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻭﻝﻴﺕ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻀﻡ ﻋﺩ ‪‬ﺩﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻨﻅ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﻷﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻀﻤﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻁﻭل ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺼﺩﺭﺕ ﺒﺎﻝﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻌﻤﺩﺕ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻹﻁﺎﻝﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺘﻲ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻜﺄﺴﺘﺎﺫﺓ ﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺠﻌل ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺃﺓ ﻴﻨﺼﺏ ﺒﻭﺠﻪ ﺨﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻨﻲ ﻻ ﺃﻓﺘﺭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﹸﺘﻌﺩ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺘﻁﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻓﻀل‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻝ ‪‬ﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ‪ ،‬ﻝﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻬﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻬﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺄﻝﻭﻑ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻲ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻴﺭ ﻝﻼﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬
‫ﺘﻁﺭﺤﻪ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻤﻴﺎﺩﻴﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺘﺄﺜ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻨﺴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﺯﺩﻫﺭﺓ ﻭﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻨﺘﻌﺸﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺘﺎﺤﺕ ﺴﻴﺎﹰﻗﺎ ﺩﺍﻋ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬

                            ‫ﺃﻨﺘﺠﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺎﻑ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻴل ﺠﺎﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺫﺍﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻭل ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺸﻬﺩﺕ‬
‫ﺘﺤﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻓﻜﺭ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﺩﺍ ﹰﻻ‪ :‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺃﺓ )ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻗﻀﺎﻴﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺘﻬﺎ( ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ )ﺍﻷﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻘﺩﺓ ﻝﻼﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺠﺎل ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ(‪ .‬ﻭﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺼﺎﻑ ﺍﻝﻘﻭل ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻜﺎﺩﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺸﻙ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻻ ﻴﻤﺘﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻜل‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺃﺒﺩﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ – ﺒﻭﺼﻔﻬﺎ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻤﺤﺩﻭ ‪‬ﺩﺍ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻝﻠﺘﺼﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫‪‬ﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﻴﺎﺩﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻨﻅ ‪‬ﺭﺍ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺘﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﺭﺴﻴﺦ ﺃﺴﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻹﻤﺒﻴﺭﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺤﺭﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻹﺩﻤﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻜﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺘﺠﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺒل‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺘﻬﻤﻴ ﹰﺸﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻝﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﺠﺎﻨ‪‬ﺒﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻁﻼﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻨﺸﻐﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﻤﺱ ﺒﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺩﻤﺎﺠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻔﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺴﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺴﻭﻱ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺩﺍﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﺍﺜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﻑ‪ ،‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻜ ﹰﻼ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﻭﻡ ﺒﺸﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻴﺯﺍل‬
‫ﻤﺘﺄﺭﺠ ‪‬ﺤﺎ ﺒﻘﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺴﻭﻯ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻨﺴﺒ‪‬ﻴﺎ ﻤﻥ‬

                                             ‫ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

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